Ipratropium bromide formulations
Ipratropium bromide has an anticholinergic effect
Ipratropium bromide has an anticholinergic effect, blocking the action of acetylcholine on muscarinic receptors, leading to a decrease in watery nasal secretions (runny nose) and sneezing.2 It has a strong synergistic effect with xylometazoline.1
A clinical study demonstrates an improvement in the severity of nasal discharge with ipratropium bromide nasal spray3
Patients treated with ipratropium bromide nasal sprays demonstrated 26% less nasal discharge compared to controls treated with a buffered salt solution nasal spray, and 34% less discharge compared to untreated patients.3 In the same study, the severity of nasal discharge was also subjectively judged to be reduced by 78% in participants taking ipratropium nasal spray when compared to untreated participants.3
Ipratropium bromide reduces the symptoms of nose dripping and sniffing, often present with the common cold4,5
Ipratropium blinds to muscarinic receptors within the nasal submucosal glands4,5
The anticholinergic effect of ipratropium blocks the effect of acetylcholine on these receptors,2 inhibiting the parasympathetic nervous system and subsequent secretions from the nasal mucosa.6
Ipratropium is available in combination with xylometazoline in Otrivin Complete Nasal Spray.
Products containing ipratropium are indicated for treating symptoms of the common cold, allergies, asthma, and COPD.1,2,6 It may be formulated as a nasal spray or inhaler. As a single agent, ipratropium is indicated specifically for the symptomatic relief of rhinorrhoea associated with the common cold.6
Intranasal ipratropium bromide is generally well tolerated, but may be associated with blood-tinged mucus and nasal dryness.7
As an anticholinergic agent, side effects of ipratropium include dry mouth, cough, headache, nausea, dizziness, and difficulty breathing. It may also cause allergic reactions resulting in closure of the airways, and may worsen symptoms of angle-closure glaucoma.2 Ipratropium may interact with other anticholinergic drugs if taken concurrently, increasing the risk of adverse side effects.2
Ipratropium has not been adequately studied during human pregnancy or breastfeeding.2
Nasal sprays containing ipratropium bromide should be administered as 1 spray in each nostril up to 3 times per day, with at least 6 hours between doses.
Do not exceed 3 applications into each nostril per day.8
A study conducted on ipratropium combined with xylometazoline, demonstrated superiority over xylometazoline alone in regard to the treatment of rhinorrhoea from the common cold. Study participants given the ipratropium treatments required significantly lower tissue use.1